energy investment sustainable largest technologies billion private
Report – S&E; Indicators 2018Global private investment in sustainable energy technologies in 2016 was $260billion, largely in solar and wind. China attracted the most investment of anycountry. * Early-stage private investment in sustainable energy technologies, consisting of venture capital and private equity investment, was $7.5 billion in 2016. The United States attracted the most venture capital and private equity of any country ($3.5 billion). China attracted $2.2 billion, a record high, and far higher than in 2015 ($0.5 billion). * Energy smart and solar are the leading technologies for venture and capital and private equity investment with biofuels and wind receiving far smaller amounts. Energy smart covers a wide range of technologies, from digital energy applications to efficient lighting, electric vehicles, and the smart grid that maximize the energy efficiency of existing energy sources and networks * Global private investment in later-stage financing—to build utility-scale power plants and installations of solar in residential and commercial buildings—was $252 billion in 2016. Two technologies—wind and solar—dominate investment, each with a share of about 40%. * China leads the world in attracting later-stage commercial investment in sustainable energy technologies (33% global share), followed by the EU (25%) and the United States (18%). * Investment in sustainable energy technologies fell 19% in 2016 compared to 2015, the deepest annual decline over the last decade. Investment in China and Japan fell sharply, reflecting, in part, cutbacks in government incentives supporting the deployment of renewable energy and a greater emphasis on utilizing the existing renewable energy capacity in each of these countries more effectively. * U.S. investment in 2016 ($46 billion) was 8% lower than in 2015. Investment in the United States has fluctuated in a range of $34 billion to $51 billion between 2011 and 2016 because of policy uncertainty. Solar investment has been the main driver of U.S. investment between 2010 and 2015.The United States was the largest investor ($3.8 billion) in 2014 in publicresearch, development, and demonstration (RD&D) of sustainable energytechnologies. The EU is the second largest investor ($3.6 billion), followedby Japan ($2.7 billion). * Global expenditures on public RD&D of sustainable energy technologies was an estimated $12.0 billion in 2014. Nuclear was the largest area, receiving $3.5 billion. The next two largest areas were energy efficiency ($3.3 billion) and renewables ($3.0 billion). * Between 2011 and 2014, global expenditures of public RD&D fell from $14 billion to $12 billion, with declines in nuclear, renewables, and carbon capture and storage. * Despite a decline in U.S. investment between 2011 and 2014, the United States surpassed the EU to become the world’s largest investor in 2014. U.S. public RD&D investment in renewables and nuclear declined, while investment in energy efficiency increased. The number of U.S. Patent and Trade Office patents granted in sustainableenergy technologies doubled between 2009 and 2015. Six technologies—solar,hybrid and electric vehicles, smart grid, fuel cell, battery, capture andstorage of carbon and other greenhouse gases—have led growth of these patents. * U.S. inventors received the largest share of sustainable energy patents in 2016 (43%), followed by Japan (20%), and the EU (16%). Patenting by U.S. inventors has been led by four technologies—hybrid and electric vehicles, solar, smart grid, and energy storage. * Patents granted to South Korea more than quadrupled between 2009 and 2016, led by growth in energy storage, solar, hybrid/electric, and battery technologies.